Getting Started

Before actually getting started, it is important to understand the motivation and mechanics behind SUIT:

  • Immediate mode is better than retained mode
  • Layout does not care about widgets
  • Less is more

Immediate mode?

With classical (retained) mode libraries you typically have a stage where you create the whole UI when the program initializes. This includes what happens when events like button presses or slider changes occur. After that point, the GUI is expected to not change very much. This is great for word processors where the interaction is consistent and straightforward, but bad for games, where everything changes all the time.

With immediate mode libraries, on the other hand, the GUI is created every frame from scratch. Because that would be wasteful, there are no widget objects. Instead, widgets are created by functions that react to UI state and present some data. Where this data comes from and how it is maintained does not concern the widget at all. This is, after all, your job. This gives great control over what is shown where and when. The widget code can be right next to the code that does what should happen if the widget state changes. The layout is also very flexible: adding a widget is one more function call, and if you want to hide a widget, you simply don’t call the corresponding function.

This separation of data and behaviour is great when a lot of stuff is going on, but takes a bit of time getting used to.

What SUIT is

SUIT is simple: It provides only a few basic widgets that are important for games:

SUIT is comfortable: It has a straightforward, yet effective row/column-based layout engine.

SUIT is adaptable: It is possible to change the color scheme, single drawing functions for all widget or the whole theme.

SUIT is hackable: Custom widgets can leverage the extensive core library.

SUIT is good at games!

What SUIT is not

SUIT is not a complete GUI library: It does not provide dropdowns, table views, menu bars, modal dialogs, etc.

SUIT is not a complete GUI library: It does not have a markup language or tools to design a user interface.

SUIT is not a complete GUI library: It does not take control of the runtime. You have to do everything yourself [1].

SUIT is not good at word processors!

Hello, World

SUITing up is is straightforward: Define your GUI in love.update(), and draw it in love.draw():

suit = require 'suit'

local show_message = false
function love.update(dt)
    -- Put a button on the screen. If hit, show a message.
    if suit.Button("Hello, World!", 100,100, 300,30).hit then
        show_message = true
    end

    -- if the button was pressed at least one time, but a label below
    if show_message then
        suit.Label("How are you today?", 100,150, 300,30)
    end
end

function love.draw()
    suit.draw()
end

This will produce this UI (after clicking the button):

_images/hello-world.gif

As written above, the two widgets are each created by a function call (suit.Button and suit.Label). The first argument to a widget function is always the “payload” of the widget, and the last four arguments define the position and dimension of the widget. The function returns a table that indicates the UI state of the widget. Here, the state hit is used to figure out if the mouse was clicked and released on the button. See Widgets for more info on widget states.

Mutable state

Widgets that mutate some state - input boxes, checkboxes and sliders - receive a table argument as payload, e.g.:

local slider = {value = 1, min = 0, max = 2}
function love.update(dt)
    suit.Slider(slider, 100,100, 200,20)
    suit.Label(tostring(slider.value), 300,100, 200,20)
end
_images/mutable-state.gif

The widget function updates the payload when some user interaction occurs. In the above example, slider.value may be changed by the Slider() widget. The value is then shown by a Label() next to the slider.

Options

You can define optional, well, options after the payload. Most options affect how the widget is drawn. For example, to align the label text to the left in the above example, you would write:

local slider = {value = 1, max = 2}
function love.update(dt)
    suit.Slider(slider, 100,100, 200,30)
    suit.Label(tostring(slider.value), {align = "left"}, 300,100, 200,30)
end
_images/options.gif

What options are available and what they are doing depends on the widget and the theme. See Widgets for more info on widget options.

Keyboard input

The input widget requires that you forward the keypressed and textinput events to SUIT:

local input = {text = ""}
function love.update(dt)
    suit.Input(input, 100,100,200,30)
    suit.Label("Hello, "..input.text, {align="left"}, 100,150,200,30)
end

-- forward keyboard events
function love.textinput(t)
    suit.textinput(t)
end

function love.keypressed(key)
    suit.keypressed(key)
end
_images/keyboard.gif

The slider widget can also react to keyboard input. The mouse state is automatically updated, but you can provide your own version of reality if you need to. See the Core functions for more details.

Layout

It is tedious to calculate the position and size of each widget you want to put on the screen. Especially when all you want is to put three buttons beneath each other. SUIT implements a simple, yet effective layout engine. All the engine does is put cells next to each other (below or right). It does not care what you put into those cells, but assumes that you probably need them for widgets. Cells are reported by four numbers (left, top, width and height) that you can directly pass as the final four arguments to the widget functions. If you have ever dabbled with Qt’s QBoxLayout, you already know 89% [2] of what you need to know.

The first example can be written as follows:

suit = require 'suit'

local show_message = false
function love.update(dt)
    -- put the layout origin at position (100,100)
    -- cells will grow down and to the right of the origin
    -- note the colon syntax
    suit.layout:reset(100,100)

    -- put 10 extra pixels between cells in each direction
    suit.layout:padding(10,10)

    -- construct a cell of size 300x30 px and put the button into it
    if suit.Button("Hello, World!", suit.layout:row(300,30)).hit then
        show_message = true
    end

    -- add another cell below the first cell
    -- the size of the cell is the same as the first cell
    if show_message then
        suit.Label("How are you today?", suit.layout:row())
    end
end

function love.draw()
    suit.draw()
end
_images/layout.gif

At the beginning of each frame, the layout origin (and some internal layout state) has to be reset. You can also define optional padding between cells. Cells are added using layout:row(w,h) (which puts the new cell below the old cell) and layout:col(w,h) (which puts the new cell to the right of the old cell). If omitted, the width and height of the new cell are copied from the old cell. There are also special identifiers that calculate the size from the sizes of all cells that were created since the last reset(): max, min and median. They do what you expect them to do.

It is also possible to nest cells and to let cells dynamically fill the available space (but you have to tell how much space there is beforehand). Refer to the Layout documentation for more information.

Themeing

SUIT lets you customize how any widget (except ImageButton()) is drawn. Each widget (except, you know) is drawn by a function in the table suit.theme. Conveniently, the name of the function responsible for drawing a widget is named after it, so, a button is drawn by the function suit.theme.Button. If you want to change how a button is drawn, simply overwrite the function. If you want to redecorate completely, it might be easiest to start from scratch and swap the whole table.

However, if you just don’t like the colors, the default theme is open to change. It requires you to change the background (bg) and foreground (fg) color of three possible widget states: normal, when nothing out of the ordinary happened, hovered, when the mouse hovers above a widget, and active, when the mouse hovers above, and the mouse button is pressed (but not yet released) on the widget. The colors are saved in the table suit.theme.color. The default color scheme is this:

suit.theme.color = {
    normal  = {bg = { 66, 66, 66}, fg = {188,188,188}},
    hovered = {bg = { 50,153,187}, fg = {255,255,255}},
    active  = {bg = {255,153,  0}, fg = {225,225,225}}
}

You can also do minimally invasive surgery:

function love.load()
    suit.theme.color.normal.fg = {255,255,255}
    suit.theme.color.hovered = {bg = {200,230,255}, fg = {0,0,0}}
end

GUI Instances

Sometimes you might feel the need to separate parts of the GUI. Maybe the widgets should have a different theme, maybe certain should always be drawn before or after other UI elements, or maybe you don’t want the UI state to “leak” (e.g., from a stacked pause gamestate to the main gamestate).

For this reason, SUIT allows you to create GUI instances:

local dress = suit.new()

The IO and layout state of dress is totally contained in the instance and does not affect any other instances (including the “global” instance suit). In particular, suit.draw() will not draw anything from dress. Luckily, you can do that yourself:

dress:draw()

Notice that instances require that you use the colon syntax. This is true for every core <core> function as well as the widgets. To create a button, for example, you have to write:

dress:Button("Click?", dress.layout:row())

Instance Theme

Unlike UI and layout state, themes are shared among instances. The reason is that the suit.theme and dress.theme are references, and point to the same table (unless you make either of them point somewhere else). Usually this is a feature, but please still consider this

Warning

Changes in a shared theme will be shared across GUI instances.

If this is an issue—for example because you only want to change the color scheme of an instance—you can either deep-copy the theme table or use some metatable magic:

dress.theme = setmetatable({}, {__index = suit.theme})

-- NOTE: you have to replace the whole color table. E.g., replacing only
--       dress.theme.color.normal will also change suit.theme.color.normal!
dress.theme.color = {
    normal   = {bg = {188,188,188}, fg = { 66, 66, 66}},
    hovered  = {bg = {255,255,255}, fg = { 50,153,187}},
    active   = {bg = {255,255,255}, fg = {225,153,  0}}
}

function dress.theme.Label(text, opt, x,y,w,h)
    -- draw the label in a fancier way
end
[1]But it thinks you can handle that.
[2]Proportion determined by rigorous scientific experiments [3].
[3]And theoretic reasoning. Mostly that, actually.